So originally I thought the VW trick was to avoid the small particle emissions standards, but no–it’s the Nitrous Oxide standards.
Nitrous Oxide is an ozone precursor–it is not toxic and studies have never shown a death or disease effect, but Ozone was a targeted air pollutant because it contributed to scary smog.
I can assure you smog, ambient, even terrible smog of the old historic smog of LA never killed anyone.
Ozone offended people and was a great hook for the enviros.
Marita’s essay for this week, from AmSpec.