The important take away from this essay is that biology doesn’t have the answer on this matter of interactions of two different phyla and certainly doesn’t have the answer to the phenomena discussed. A lot of uncertainty in studying living things that have immense complexity. I can live with it, but many “experts” can’t stand saying they don’t know.
Biology is still very uncertain, and the what if’s and maybes are everywhere.
Symbiosis, whether parasitic (negative for one partner) or commensal (positive for both), happens and is another complexity that creates questions in the world of living things. In this case in involves viruses and wasps/butterflies/caterpillars. Fascinating.